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Psychrophiles: Cold Adaptation

Chirag S Raval, Jaysukh H Markna, Leena Ambasana, Daivit Dhruv, Nikesh Shah


Almost three-quarters of the Earth’s surface are covered by cold ecosystems, involving the depths of ocean, and Polar Regions. These continuous cold environments have been successfully covered by members of extremophiles which are known as psychrophiles (means cold-loving). To grow at temperatures that are close to, or below, the freezing point of water requires many adaptations. To survive in such cold weather, psychrophilic organisms developed structural, physiological and molecular adaptations. This includes the membrane fluidity, production of specialized proteins and cold-active enzymes. The cold adaptation of psychrophilic organisms is poorly understood. Psychrophilic products have generated considerable interest; they can be used to improve the efficiency of industrial processes and also for environmental applications. They may add new insights into the understanding of catalytic mechanism of enzymes. Because of their higher specificity and high catalytic efficiency, the cold-active enzymes are generating more interest in various fields. 


Keywords: Extremophiles, psychrophiles, cold adaptation, freezing point, cold-active


Extremophiles, psychrophiles, cold adaptation, freezing point, cold-active enzymes

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